Roswell Community College was officially established as a branch of Eastern New Mexico University in the fall of 1958 under the leadership of Donald T. Rippey. From 1958 through the fall semester of 1962, the college conducted classes in the evening at Roswell High School. In January of 1963, with an enrollment of 75 students, eight daytime classes were held at the old post office. This established, for the first time in Roswell, a daytime coeducational college program.

When Walker Air Force Base closed on June 30, 1967, Eastern New Mexico University-Roswell acquired 234.5 acres, including 27 major brick structures and numerous frame construction buildings. Roswell Community College was renamed Eastern New Mexico University-Roswell. The college spent the summer moving into the new buildings, and in September of 1967, began holding classes on its new campus.

For the first time, ENMU‑Roswell could offer, in addition to its academic transfer program, a successful career and technical program which included training in various skilled trades and work in the health occupations areas. Enrollment has increased from 157 part-time students in 1958 to close to 4,000 students in the spring of 2015, illustrating the need for educational opportunity in Southeastern New Mexico.

Through a series of statewide and local bond issues, a number of new buildings have been constructed. Several other facilities have been renovated and expanded to meet the changing needs of the ENMU-Roswell campus. Between 1996 and 2010 the following projects were completed: Arts & Science Center, Instructional Center renovation, Swimming Pool renovation, Instructional Technology Center, Aviation Maintenance expansion, Auto Tech/Occupational Training Center repair, Health Science Center Phases I and II, Sierra Vista Village, and renovation of the Campus Union Building. The Student Services Center, which centralizes student services functions, was completed in January of 2013.